LeadershipMultiple Choice Questions (Enter your answers on the enclosed answer sheet)1. Which of the

LeadershipMultiple Choice Questions (Enter your answers on the enclosed answer sheet)1. Which of the following statements is incorrect?The idea of “one-man leadership” is a contradiction in termsLeadership is a social influence process shared among all members of a groupFollowers are part of the leadership processLeadership is restricted to the influence exerted by someone in a particular role2. Among the following, ideal followers are more likely to be perceived asIndependentForward-lookingInspiringInnovative3. Which of the following statements about “common sense” is false?Effective leadership must be something more than just common senseWhat seems obvious after you know the results and what you would have predicted beforehand are not the same thingOne of the challenges of understanding leadership is to know when common sense applies and when it does notThe term “common sense” implies practical knowledge about life that most people have not yet acquired4. Which of the following statements is false?One needs nothing more than common sense to be a good leaderLeaders need to recognize that others’ views are usefulLeaders need to recognize when times change and a new direction is called forOne of the challenges of understanding leadership is to know when common sense applies and when it does notBeing a leader is either in one’s genes or not. Which of the following statement is true?Innate factors more than formative experiences influence leadershipLeadership is either innate or acquired, not bothTypically most individuals can be categorized based on their innate qualities as leaders and non-leadersEach person can make the most of leadership opportunities he or she faces6. Identify a myth associated with leadership development.Good leadership is knowing when common sense applies and when it does notGood leaders are born with the traits and abilities, which make them successfuI leadersYou can only learn leadership by observing itLearning to be a better leader depends on the richness of one’s experience and the ability and desire to learnWhich of the following is not a common myth about leadership development?Good leadership is all common senseLeaders are born, not madeLeadership can only be taughtYou can only learn leadership from experience8. The change in organizational practices can be attributed toAppointing women to leadership positions, which is a departure from past practicesThe fact that womens’ attitudes have become similar to those of menWomens’ self-reports of traits such as assertivenessLegislation prohibiting gender-based discrimination at workA trend toward less stereotypically masculine characterizations of leadership is representative of the fact thatLeadership roles have changedWomen themselves have changedOrganizational practices have changedCulture has changedEncouraging innovation, growth and development and redefined tasks and responsibilities best describes aLeaderManagerManager in a later stage of developmentLeader-manager integrated role11. LeadersTend to accept the definitions of situations presented to themEncourage growth and development in their followers in ways broader than mere job trainingEmphasize routinization and control of followers’ behaviorMotivate followers more with extrinsic, even contractual consequences, both positive and negative12. LeadersWork hard for cooperationGive clear directionGive overlapping and ambiguous assignmentsFocus on control and resultsLeaders, as compared to managers, tend to assess their followers’ performanceLess in terms of personal criteriaMore in terms of specific criteriaLess in terms of holistic criteriaMore in terms of idiosyncratic criteriaLeaders redefine the parameters of tasks and responsibilities, both for individual followers and for the entire group by all the following ways exceptTaking a short-term perspectiveActively change the situations they are inThrough accentuating critical valuesBy marshaling energy to cope with some new threatWhich of the following statements concerning the manager’s role in manager-follower-situation interactions is true?Managers tend to reject the definitions of situations presented to themManagers tend to assign broader rather than narrower tasks for followers to performManagers assess their followers’ performance in terms of fairly general job descri ptionsManagers make sure followers conform to policies or proceduresThe most commonly cited developmental challenge mentioned by managers, which while adding to personal pressure, also contributed to professional growth areTravel requirementsThe responsibility of meeting deadlinesTasks with the possibility of success and failurePutting in longer hours at workSuccessful executives mention all of the following as negative feelings while describing how they feel while working through potent developmental experiences except feel ing:UncertainOverwhelmedFearfulChallengedIn the process of “learning to learn from experience”, people operating in the stabilizing period mustOvercome the caution generated by ongoi ng successOvercome the tension of challenging what they do not know how to doAttempt at learning a new set of responses and strategiesLet go of short-term expectations in favor of more long-term learning19. The content of leadership programs at the university-levelGives subordinates feedback about their progressProvides a survey of the major leadership findingsFocuses on strategic planningFocuses on how to train subordinates__ consist of descriptions of various leadership situations and are used as a vehicle for leadership discussions.SimulationsRole playingCase studiesGames2l. What is the advantage of role playing as a leadership concept?Individualized feedback to students through leadership behavior ratingsDepict the challenges commonly faced in the work environmentUsed as a vehicle for leadership discussionsGreater transferabiIity to the workplaceImproving interpersonal, oral-communication and written-communication skills are a part of leadership training programs forMid-level managersFirst-level supervisorsColleges or universitiesMaintenance personnelThis technique wherein participants are given a limited amount of time prioritize and respond to a number of notes, is particularly useful in assessing and improving a manager’s planning and time management skills.SimulationsRole playingIn-basket exercisesCase studiesIn leaderless group discussions, facilitators and observers rate participants, which are used to provide managers with feedback about theirSupervisory skillsInterpersonal skillsPlanning skillsTime management skillsThese represent the most sophisticated and expensive method for assessing leadership potential.Internet measuresStructured interviewsPaper-and-pencil measuresAssessment centers26. What is the purpose of modern-day assessment centers?To select officers for the militaryTo assess, identify and develop leadership potentialTo select civil servants for the governmentTo select special agents and spiesWhat is the first step in improving the bench strength of the leaders within an organization?To promote the right peopleTo cultivate employee loyaltyTo be up-to-date with the latest developments in technologyTo evaluate and reward its leaders28. How can one differentiate between successful and unsuccessful leaders?By the attributes of their followersBy the attributes they possessBy the productivity of their followersBy the behaviors they exhibitWhat is a disadvantage of judging the effectiveness of a leader based on the subordinates’ ratings?Results are due to factors beyond leaders’ controlThere may be no links between ratings and unit performanceRaters’ unwillingness to provide tough feedbackRaters are unaware of true performanceWhat is the advantage of judging the effectiveness of a leader based on superiors’ ratings?Multiple ratersSubject of leaders’ behaviorsFrequently usedActual results3l. Oftentimes these individuals are given lower performance appraisal ratings because superiors do not want them to get promoted.CheerleadersResults only managersI n name on Iy managersCompetent managersThis phenomenon is becoming more prevalent as organizations move toward virtual teams or increase the number of people anyone superior may supervise.Superiors may be largely unaware or unfamiliar with a target leader’s performanceSuperiors do not take the time to provide accurate performance appraisal ratingsSuperiors have difficulty dealing with conflictSuperiors would rather give average ratings than deal with the emotions associated with unflattering ratingsAn in-depth examination of a leader’s behavior in a particular set of circumstances is a(n)Case studyCorrelational studyExperimentNomothetic studyA politician’s advisor explains how demographic changes in the politician’s district make it important for the politician to spend relatively more time in the district seeing constituents than she has needed to in the recent past. This is an example ofIngratiationAn inspirational appealA consultationA rational persuasionWhen a minister makes an impassioned plea to members of his congregation about the good works which could be accomplished if a proposed addition to the church were built, he isMaking a personal appealMaking an inspirational appealMaking a rational persuasionUsing ingratiation36. This occurs when agents ask targets to participate in planning an activity.Rational persuasionIngratiationConsultationPersonal appealA salesperson’s good-natured or flattering banter with you before you make a decision about purchasing a product exemplifiesRational persuasionConsultationPersonal appealIngratiationCoalition tacticsAre used when agents seek the aid of others to influence the targetOccur when agents ask targets to participate in planning an activityOccur when the agent attempts to get you in a good mood before making a requestAre used when agents ask another to do a favor out of friendship__ occur when agents make requests based on their position or authority.Pressure tacticsLegitimizing tacticsExchangesCoalition tacticsA judge who gives a convicted prisoner a suspended sentence but tells him to consider the suspension a “sword hanging over your head” if he breaks the law again is usingLegitimizing tacticsCoalition tacticsPressure tacticsRational persuasionLeaders who have only coercive or legitimate power may be able to use only __ to influence followers.Coalition tacticsInspirational appealsConsultationsIngratiation42. People typically use legitimizing or pressure tactics whenThey are at a disadvantageAn influencer has the upper handThey expect resistanceParties are relatively equal in powerOne of the predictions for what the __ generation might look like as its members move through their 20s is that they will develop community norms based on rules, standards and personal responsibility.BoomerXerNexterVeteran44. Moral reasoning refers toThe process leaders use to make decisions about values and ethicsThe espoused values of individualsThe morality of individuals per seThe process leaders use to make decisions about ethical and unethical behaviorsIn the pre-conventional level of moral development, the criteria for moral behaviorAre based pri mari Iy on self -i nterestAre based primarily on gaining others’ approvalAre based on universal, abstract principlesAre based primarily on behaving conventionally46. What do leaders with strong recognition values value the most?AchievementFameMeeting new peopleMoral rulesLeaders with strong __ values enjoy competition, being seen as influential and drive hard to make an impact.RecognitionAltruisticPowerHedonismFilm directors, musical conductors or marketing leaders are examples of leaders with strongAffiliation valuesPower valuesSecurity valuesAesthetics valuesLeaders with these values are motivated by pleasure, variety and excitement and can often be found in the entertainment, hospitality, recreation, sports, sales or travel industries.TraditionHedonismAltruisticAffiliationThis is not an organizational level of leadership in the principle-centered leadership approach.ManagerialPersonalCulturalInterpersonal5l. Leaders and followers who possess higher levels of this type of intelligence tend to be quick learners and have the ability to make accurate deductions, assumptions and inferences with relatively unfamiliar information.Analytic i ntell igencePractical intelligenceCreative i ntell igenceSocial intelligenceStudents in a school for the mentally challenged did very poorly on standardized tests yet consistently found ways to defeat the school’s elaborate security system. In this situation the students possessed a relatively high level ofSocial intelligenceAnalytic intelligencePractical intelligenceCreative i ntell igenceA leader who has a lot of knowledge and experience in leading a pharmaceutical research team may feel like a duck out of water when asked to lead a major fund-raising effort for a charitable institution. This example illustrates that practical intelligenceIs concerned with knowledge and experienceIs domain specificIs the ability to learnIs the ability to produce work that is novelThe ability to produce work that is both novel and useful is calledPractical intelligenceSocial intelligenceAnalytic intelligenceCreative intelligence55. Most intelligence and aptitude tests are good examples ofSystems thinki ngConvergent thinkingPicture thinkingDivergent thinkingWhat is traditionally viewed as creativity and are skills that help people recognize novel patterns or connections?Practical intelligenceAnalytic intelligenceSynthetic abiIityIntrinsic motivationWhat term relates to a component of creative intelligence that deals with people either preferring to modify what already exists or completely starting over with new solutions?Thinking styleEnvironmental factorsPersonality factorsAnalytic intelligenceLower prudence, higher openness to experience and higher surgency scores are related toI ntri nsic motivationPersonality factorsAnalytic intelligenceEnvironmental factors59. Creative people are most likely to focus onThe need to meet deadlinesImpressing othersMaking moneySolving the problem at handWhich of the following statements concerning 360-degree feedback systems is false?Companies that used 360-degree feedback systems had a 10.6 per cent decrease in shareholder valueMost 360-degree feedback systems are designed to make comparisons between people360-degree feedback are data based and provide good development feedbackIt provides insight into self-perceptions and others’ perceptions of leadership skillsWhich of the following statements about 360-degree feedback systems is true?360-degree feedback results affect behavioral change per se360-degree feedback are the only sources of “how” feedback for leadersh i p practitioners360-degree feedback should be built around an organization’s competency modelIt is mandatory for all leaders to receive 360-degree feedbackStrategic differences with management and difficulty making strategic transitions are behaviors exhibited by derailed managers whoHave shown inability to develop or adapt to new bossesHave shown inability to build and lead a teamHave failed to meet business objectivesHave problems with interpersonal relationshipsDerailed managers exhibiting the derailment pattern that has to do with an inability to build relationships with coworkers are characterized by which of the following?Failure to staff effectivelyOrganizational isolationLack of hard workDifficulty making strategic transitions64. What is cited as the most common reason for CEO failure?Making poor decisions concerning which markets to pursueProblems developing a vision or strategy for the companyThe inability to meet earnings projectionsFailure to keep promises, commitments or deadlinesWhich of the following underlies the derailment pattern of the inability of managers to lead and build a team?The presence of dark side traitsInadequate distribution channelsPoor decisions concerning which products to developLying about business resultsAs a difference between male-female patterns, females were more likely to derail because ofTheir inflexibilityTheir arroganceTheir abrasive interpersonal styleTheir inability to deal with complex organizational issues67. The insight component of the development pipeline concerned withOn-the-job experiencesProviding leaders accurate feedback on their strengthsAcquiring new knowledge and skillsWorking on development goals that matterSeventy to eighty percent of the action steps in a development plan should beObservationPast experienceJob relatedAcquiring new knowledgeWhich of the following would most likely result in consistently higher effort and performance?Goals that are both specific and difficultGoals that are very difficult to achieve”Do your best” goalsHaving clear goals70. Which of the following statements about goals is false?Determining just how challenging to make goals creates a dilemma for leadersGoal commitment is critical and is often as high as commitment to goals followers helped to setFollowers exerted the greatest effort when goals were accompanied by feedbackEasily attainable goals result in higher levels of effort and performance71. This occurs when leaders articulate high expectations for followers.Hawthorne effectPygmalion effectPlacebo effectHierarchy effectLeaders who have little faith in their followers’ ability to accomplish a goal are rarely disappointed. This refers toPlacebo effectPygmalion effectGolem effectHierarchy effect”Motivated performance is the result of conscious choice” is a fundamental assumption ofSelf-efficacyExpectancy theoryEquity theoryGoal setting74. In effort-to-performance expectancy,The follower must determine whether the outcome is sufficiently positive to be worth the time and effortThe follower esti mates the Ii kel i hood of receivi ng a reward, given that she achieves the desired level of performanceThe follower must determine the likely outcomes, assuming that the previous two conditions have been metThe follower estimates the likelihood of performing the desired behavior adequately, assuming she puts forth the required effort75. Personal inputs refer toSkillsRecognitionJob satisfactionPersonal growth76. Which of the following is most important in the equity theory?The evaluation of equality of inputs or equality of outcomesThe absolute value of one’s own outcomes considered by itselfThe absolute value of one’s own inputs considered by itselfThe relationship between the two ratios77. Which of the following statements about the equity theory is true?If the ratios are significantly different, a follower is not motivated to take changeAs long as there is general equality between the two ratios, there is motivation to changeThe perception of inequity creates a state of tension and an inherent pressure for changeExactly what the follower will be motivated to do depends on the direction of equalityOne’s core beliefs about being able to successfully perform a given task is calledA. Self-actualizationB .Self-efficacySelf-esteemSelf-fulfillment79. Which of the following is an advantage of decentralized organizations?Uniform policies and proceduresMinimal participation in the decision processGreater acceptance and ownership of decision outcomesClearer coordination procedures80. What is the disadvantage of functional organizations?Poor coord i nation across departmentsDuplication of resourcesLess in depth technical expertiseWeak coord i nation across different prod uct grou pi ngsWhat is the advantage of a product organization design?Centralized decision making and controlEfficient use of scarce resourcesSkill development for technical personnelIt places a premium on organizational goalsAn organization with a stable, well-established product line and the need for close coordination between functions would be best off with which type of design?BureaucraticFunctionalMatrixProduct83. What is the greatest disadvantage of the matrix design?Decreased lateral communication and coordinationInefficient utilization of human resourcesEmployees end up working for two bossesIt can create scheduling nightmaresThis represents the degree to which a leader’s work group is affected by the activities of other subunits within the organization.CentralizationLatera I interdependenceHorizontal complexitySpatial complexity85. This is the weakest element of situational favorability.Subordinate acceptanceLeader-member relationsTask structurePosition power86. The highest levels of situational favorability occur whenLeader-member relations are good, the task is structured and position power is highThere are high levels of leader-member conflict, the task is unstructured and the leader does not have the power to reward/punish subordinatesLeader-member relations are good, the task is unstructured and position power is lowThere are high levels of leader-member conflict, the task is structured and the leader has the power to reward/punish subordinatesWhich leader behaviors are marked by attention to the competing demands of treating followers equally while recognizing status differentials between the leader and the followers?Achievement-oriented leadershipDirective leadershipParticipative leadershipSupportive leadership88. Leaders exhibiting participative leadershipAre very similar to the task behaviors from SLTAre very similar to the relationship behaviors in SLTEngage in the behaviors that mark consultative and group behaviorsWould be seen as both demanding and supporting in interactions with their followers89. Internal-Iocus-of-control followersAre much more satisfied with leaders who exhibit achievement-oriented behaviors than they are with leaders who are supportiveBelieve outcomes are a result of their own decisionsAre more satisfied with directive leader behaviors than they are with participative leader behaviorsBelieve they are, relatively speaking, “pawns of fate”Which of the following is not a variable in the path-goal theory?AchievementLeader BehaviorsFollowersThe Sitiuation9l. The __ authority system is associated with leaders thought to possess, divine or superhuman qualities.TraditionalLegal-rationalCharismaticPersonalized92. Transactional leadershipOccurs when a person possesses authority not because of tradition, but because of the laws that govern the position occupiedServes to change the status quo by appealing to followers’ values and their sense of higher purposeOccurs when the traditions of society dictate who has authority and how this authority can be usedOccurs when leaders and followers are in some type of exchange relationship in order to get needs metThis leadership serves to change the status quo by appealing to followers’ values and their sense of higher purpose.SupportiveTransactionalTransformationalParticipative94. Which of the following statements is true?Transactional leaders are always controversialAll transformational leaders are charismaticAll charismatic leaders are transformationalTransactional leaders are also adept at reframing issuesAccording to the research on charismatic leadership, which of the following characteristics would fall in the leader category in the L-F-S interactional framework?CrisesFeelings of empowermentRhetorical skillsTask interdependence96. According to research, the leader’s vision isConsistent with current realitiesUsually presented in written form so subordinates can study itOften depressing (in the short run) for the subordinates who must change their viewOften a collaborative effort97. Which of the following statements about transformational leaders is true?They are inherently future-orientedTheir vision is based solely on their own valuesThey sometimes take credit for others’ accomplishmentsThey tend to be emotionally expressive98. Charismatic leadersUse abstract and colorless rational discourse to reframe issuesMake extensive use of stories to make their pointsAre adept at tailoring their language to particular groupsAre good in engaging groups mentally and emotionally99. Charismatic leaders tend to beExtremely smartData-drivenEmotionally expressiveFairly introvertedThis takes place when followers do no more than abide by the policies and procedures surrounding change requests.CooperationComplianceCommitmentMalicious compliance